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HEAT EXCHANGERS

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The overall heat transfer coefficiency of Borosilicate glass equipment compare favourably with many alternative materials because of its smooth surface which improve the film coefficient and reduce the tendency of fouling.

Heat exchangers are avilable in two basic types: coil type and shell & tube type. Shell & tube type heat exchangers are of recent development.



CONDENSERS

Condenser are use for condensation of vapours and cooling of liquids. Condensers are made by fusing number of parallel in a glass shell . Coils are made in different diameters using tubes of different bores.

The average co-efficient of heat transfer in coil condenser is considered as-

Condensation 200 - 270 Kcal/m2, hr, ºC appx.
Cooling 100 – 150 Kcal/m2, hr, ºC appx.

 


Cat.Ref.
DN
d/DN1
L
L1
Type
Actual H.T.A. m2
Cross Area Cm2
Free coolant Rate Kg/hr
Max. Jacket cap. Litre
HE3/3.5
80
16
600
100
A
0.35
5
1300
2
HE4/5*
100
19
600
100
A
0.50
30
2400
4
HE4/6
100
19
750
100
A
0.60
30
2400
6
HE6/10
150
25
600
100
B
1.00
52
2600
9
HE6/15*
150
25
850
100
B
1.50
52
2600
11
HE9/25*
225
25
800
100
B
2.50
125
3300
18
HE12/25
300
25
600
125
B
2.50
175
5700
25
HE12/40
300
25
900
125
B
4.00
175
5700
35
HE16/40
400
25
600
125
B
4.00
450
6200
60
HE16/50
400
25
700
125
B
5.00
450
6200
70
HE18/60
450
40
750
150
C
6.00
820
4800
100
HE18/80
450
40
900
150
C
8.00
820
6200
110
HE24/120
600
50
1250
300
C
12.00
1520
6200
265

Precautions o be taken in use of condensers

  • Vapours should be passed through shell only.
  • Maximum pressure of coolant should be used.
  • Adequate flow of coolant should be used.
  • Steam should not be used in coils
  • Coolant should not be heated to boiling point.
  • Coolant control valve should be turned slowly.
  • Brine can be used in coils in a closed circuit.
  • Water main should be connected with flexible hose.
  • Ensure no freezing of water remaining in the coils.
  • Condensers should be mounted vertically only.
  • Condensers can be mounted in series o provide larger surface area.

METHODS OF USE

Vapours from bottom

This method is simple to install over a reactor. However this results in condensate returning substantially at its condensing temperature. In this method care must be taken that condensate is not excessive that it can lead to "logging" the coils and create back pressure in the system. Generally a efflux divider is used below the condenser to tack out the distillate.

Vapours from top

This method produce a cool condensate using the entire cooling surface area. This method should be used where the condensate can lead to "logging" of coils.

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

All the shell and tube heat exchangers are constructed with 12mm OD, 1.5 mm thick glass tubes. These tubes are arranged in triangular pitch of 21 mm. Baffles are provided with 30% cut at a distance of approximately equal to inner diameter of shell. Generally PTFE baffles are used in Glass shells and PP baffles in Metal Shells.

Shell and tube heat exchanger can be operated within a temperature range of - 40C to 150C on either side. However differential temperature should not exceed 120C at any point. All the shell and tube heat exchangers can be used predominantly under full vacuum provided differential pressure does not exceed 3 bar g.

The range of overall heat transfer co-efficient in the shell and tube heat exchangers are considered as follows.

Condensation
Water - Water
600 - 900 kcal/m2 , h, ºC
Condensation
Water - Organic solvents
400 - 600 kcal/m2 , h, ºC
Evaporation
Steam - Water
500 - 900 kcal/m2 , h, ºC
Cooling
Water - Water
500 - 600 kcakl/m2 , h, ºC
Cooling
Water - Organic solvents
250 - 600 kcalm2 , h, ºC
Cooling
Water - Oil
75 - 350 kcalm2 , h, ºC
Cooling
Water - Air
25 - 250 kcal/m2 , h, ºC

 

No. of 
DN
Shell Tubes
Corss section Cm2
Max. operating Pressure Shell side
Tube Side
Tube Side
Side
Glass
Metal
80
7
23
5
3.0
3.0
3.0
100
19
43
12
2.0
2.0
2.0
150
37
93
23
1.5
1.5
2.0
225
73
189
46
1.0
1.0
2.0
300
151
348
96
0.7
0.7
2.0

TECHNICAL INFORMATION

Tube are arrange in tringular pitch of 21 mm. Baffles are provided with 25% cut at a distance of apporximately equal toinner dia.of shell. Generally PTFE Baffles are used in glass shell and PP Baffles in metal shell. Shell & Tube heat exchanger can be operated within a tempreture range of - 40C. to 150C either side. However differential temperature should not exceed 120C at any point. All the shell & tube heat exchange can be used predominatly under full vacuum provided differential pressure does exceed 3 bar.g.
Cat.Ref. SRGG SRMG
6/3
6/4
6/5
6/6
9/6
9/8
9/10
9/12
12/12
12/16
12/21
12/26
Heat Transfer Area (m²)
3
4
5
6
6
8
10
12,5
12,5
16
21
26
DN
150
225
300
DN1
80
100
150
DN2
50
80
80
DN3
25
40
40
DN4
50
50
50
H1
175
250
300
H2
150
205
240
L1
2534
3034
3834
4534
2864
3364
4164
4864
2916
3416
4216
4916
L2
438
438
438
438
688
688
688
688
728
728
728
728
L3
1658
2158
2958
3658
1488
1988
2788
3488
1460
1960
2760
3460
L4
438
438
438
438
688
688
688
688
728
728
728
728
L5
2030
2530
3330
4030
2030
2530
3330
4030
2030
2530
3330
4030
L6
115
175
200
No.of tubes
37
73
151
No.of baffles
11
14
19
24
7
9
13
17
5
7
10
13
Weight KG
SRGG
60
65
72
80
95
115
125
165
200
240
270
300
SRMG
100
112
130
145
168
200
230
285
308
368
425
482

SHELL & TUBE SUPPORTS FOR GLASS SHELL

Heat Transfer Area (m²)
DN 150
DN 225
DN 300
3
4
5
6
6
8
10
12,5
12,5
16
21
26
L
SRGM
1180
1680
2480
3180
820
1320
2120
2820
450
950
1750
2450
SRGG
600
1100
1900
2600
L1
SRGM
3030
3730
2100
2600
3400
4100
SRGG
2300
2800
3600
4300
L2
150
220
480
S1
SRGM
455
900
SRGG
850
S2
SRGM
455
750
SRGG
850
H
487
525
400
H1
700
No. Tubes Support
SRGM
2
2
4
2
SRGG
4

 

Heat Transfer Area (m²)
DN 150
DN 225
DN 300
3
4
5
6
6
8
10
12,5
12,5
16
21
26
L
SRGM
1180
1680
2480
3180
820
1320
2120
2820
450
950
1750
2450
SRGG
600
1100
1900
2600
L1
SRGM
3030
3730
2100
2600
3400
4100
SRGG
2300
2800
3600
4300
L2
150
220
480
S1
SRGM
455
900
SRGG
850
S2
SRGM
455
750
SRGG
850
H
487
525
400
H1
700
No. Tubes Support
SRGM
2
2
4
2
SRGG
4


SHELL & TUBE SUPPORTS FOR METAL SHELL

Heat Transfer Area (m²)
DN 150
DN 225
DN 300
3
4
5
6
6
8
10
12,5
12,5
16
21
26
L
SRMM
1360
1860
2660
3360
1040
1540
2340
3040
860
1360
2160
1860
SRMG
1010
1510
2310
3010
L1
100
150
200
L2
160
230
310
S1
SRMM
300
450
600
SRMG
450
S2
300
450
450
H
150
200
250
E
45
45
55
Angle iron
120 x 80 x 9
60 x 80 x 12
200 x 100 x 14
Hole Diameter (ø)
20
20
22

HEAT TRANSFER IN SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

The table below given an indication of the performance of glass shell and tube heat exchangers in several typical applications. More specific advice car be given on receipt of details.


Type of Heat transfer
Basis
Kcal/m²°C
Liquid - Liquid Cooling
Water - Water
500 - 600
Water - Organic solvents
250 - 600
Water - Oil
73 - 350
Water - air
25 - 250
Liquid - gas condensation
Water - Water
600 - 900
Water - Organic solvents
400 - 600
Evaporation
Steam - organic solvents
400 - 600
steam - water
500 -900

 

SEALING PRINCIPLE Similar on all models

No. Description
1 Glass Unequal Tee (shell)
2 Glass Column Adaptor
3 PTFE Tube - Sheet
4 Cast Iron Flange
5 Insert
6 Disc Springs
7 Flat Washer
8 Nut
9 PTFE Baffle
10 PTFE Bush
11 PTFE Nut
12 Glass Tube
13 Guide rod in PTFE
14 Tie Rod in PTFE
15 Glass space
16 PTFE end Baffle